Already 5 thousand years before Christ the particular characteristics of wool has been known and used by people. The original wild sheep was covered by a layer of coarse protective wool.
By farming these wild sheep over generations, they developed into wool sheep. Before that, the lower wool layer has been combed or plucked in spring. This reduction respectively the loss of the complete cover layer, depending on the breed, developed high quality wool which was sheared from the sheep.
The techniques to use this wool vary, depending on continent, country and region. In Central Asia felting dates back to the new Stone Age while at the same time, in other parts of the world, most likely, the spun wool was woven into clothes and sheets. Relatively late, at the Middle Ages, the first knitting created with two knitting needles has been dated back.
The aim of all known processing procedures is to make the natural characteristics of wool accessible to humans.
Wool is the perfect thermo regulator. Depending on the kind of end product, it consists of up to 85 % air. Wool can absorb moister up to 33 % of its dry weight without feeling damp and release it significantly faster than for example cotton. Wool is self cleaning and therefore it ingests less odors compared to synthetic fibers. Besides these factors , wool decays sweat chemically and neutralizes unpleasant odors.
All of these features are used by today’s industry. The antistatic properties and the low flammability have also made wool an ideal fabric for insulating and covering purposes.